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Sociodemographic disparities and coronavirus disease Print


Dr. Michal Benderly, Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit

Prof. Ofra Kalter-Leibovici, Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit

Dr. Amit Huppert, Biostatistics & Biomathematics Unit

Dr. Ilya Novikov, Biostatistics & Biomathematics Unit

Ms. Arnona Ziv, Computer & Informatics Unit


Data suggest lower coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccination coverage among minority and disadvantaged groups. We aimed to identify interactions between sociodemographic factors associated with vaccination gaps.


This population study used Israeli National COVID-19 data (extracted: 10 May 2021). The analysis comprised 6 478 999 individuals age ≥15 years with aggregated area-level data on sex and age distribution and no COVID-19 history. We estimated vaccination hazard and cumulative incidence using the Fine and Gray competing risk model.


Older age and higher socioeconomic status (SES) were associated, with stepwise higher cumulative vaccination rates (age 20-24: 67%, age ≥ 75: 96%; SES 1-3: 61%, 4-5: 74.2%, 6-7: 82%, 8-10: 87%). We found the lowest vaccination rates in Arab (65%) and Ultra-Orthodox Jewish (54%) areas. SES modified the association in Arab neighbourhoods, with higher coverage than in the non-Orthodox Jewish reference group in SES 1-3 [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.11], and gradually lower coverage in higher SES classes (SES 6-7: HR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.79-0.87). Vaccination rates were also higher among younger Arabs (≤45 years) compared with age counterparts in the reference population group (age 25-34: HR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.12-1.28) and lower than the reference group among Arabs age ≥45 years. Among Ultra-Orthodox Jews, vaccination HRs remained below one across age and SES classes.


Age and SES modified the association between population group and vaccination coverage. Identifying the interplay between sociodemographic characteristics and the underlying explanations may improve targeted efforts, aimed at closing vaccination coverage gaps and mitigating COVID-19.


Michal Benderly, Amit Huppert, Ilya Novikov, Arnona Ziv, Ofra Kalter-Leibovici. Fighting a pandemic: sociodemographic disparities and coronavirus disease-2019 vaccination gaps-a population study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 01 February 2022.